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Value streams, stages, business capabilities, processes and applications relationships

Super Contributor

Value streams, stages, business capabilities, processes and applications relationships

Dear all,

can somebody explain the relationship between the Value Stream Stages, Business Capabilities, Business Processes/Organizational processes and Applications?


I'm very familiar with Value Stream/Value Stream Stages and relationships with Business Capabilities. Generally speaking Business Capabilities are linked to Business Processes however I understand that in MEGA, Organizational Processes are the operational ones? And normally in operational ones, we find activities. Activities maybe linked to applications.


When looking at an Application properties, I only see two tabs: Business Processes and Business Capabilities.

I would appreciate if somoeone had the experience of building top down the relationship from Value Streams to Applications considering activities/tasks!!

Many thanks for your replies.

8 Replies



The subset of the overall model a user can see depends on his/her persona (i.e. user profile) and use case ->  product


Business Architecture -> ITBM


As per the BIZBOK, Value Streams breakdown into Value Stages which require Capabilities





Capabilities are fulfilled by Organizations / Processes / Application / IT infrastructure





Value Streams are implemented through organizational processes





Application Portfolio Management -> ITPM / ITBM


Applications can be categorized at high level according to the covered Business Process (specific link) and Capabilities (same fulfillment link as above)


Business Process Analysis -> BPA


Business Processes regroup several Organizational Processes





Org Processes breakdown into operations and may use (via System Used concept) Applications (this is a finer grained link than the categorization in ITPM) – the applications provided functionalities (which are the Information System Capabilities) can also be referred to from the system used to narrow down which functionality of the application is used in this specific context.





Trusted Contributor

Thank you for this very detailed answer.


Org Processes breakdown into operations and may use (via System Used concept) Applications (this is a finer grained link than the categorization in ITPM)

I always found interesting that Business Processes don't inherit the applications defined at the Org level automatically in Hopex.


Hi everyone,


At this moment the consultant shows us this example.


Value Stream composed by value stage and participants assigned to business functions.








Super Contributor

Thank you so much for your detailed answer but… This is maybe not what I was expecting unless I completely misunderstood the BPA module 😁


Are you saying that the metamodel from the BPA module is based on BIZBOK as shown above? I'm very familiar with the TOGAF and the ArchiMate metamodels where we do not differentiate the Business Processes from the Organizational Processes.


My assumption was that the metamodel in the BPA module is the one from MEGA and is not BIZBOK, TOGAF or ArchiMate! Can you confirm this?

If this is the case, then I would appreciate to have the equivalent! If you tell me that the various diagrams with the yellow boxes is what we find in MEGA, then I would use that approach.


Thanks again for your very valuable reply. Please confirm that the BIZBOK metamodel above is what we have in BPA!

Kind regards



"Are you saying that the metamodel from the BPA module is based on BIZBOK as shown above?"


No, but I realize I should not use acronyms 🙂


MEGA's product dedicated to Business Architecture is HOPEX IT Business Management ("ITBM" above), where the approach is Value Stream / Capability centric and which supports the whole (digital) transformation use case.


HOPEX Business Process Analysis ("BPA") is process centric (obviously), and rather dedicated to Business Analysts rather than Business Architects 


Still, we are keen to have a consistent end to end approach of Enterprise Architecture leveraging the best of market standards / frameworks.

Therefore, HOPEX Business Process Analysis also include Business Capabilities models , which are now widely used  outside of the sole Business Architecture community.


HOPEX for the ArchiMate(R) framework is also available as a separate Open Group ArchiMate 3.1 certified product , and is natively appropriate to support TOGAF initiatives. 


Please refer to the dedicated Frameworks section of the website for more details : 



The way we use the different process concepts (in BPA) is like this:

  1. When we are modeling the Business Model, or the end-2-end processes we use the value streams. Typically, we the End-2-End processes as more “ideal” representation and not the actual implementation. Depending on the situation, we sometimes use of the “old” value stream diagram and sometimes we use the BIZBOK type.
  2. When we model the Operating Model, we use the Business Process and Organizational Processes to describe in detail how the organization is performing their processes.
  3. To create the link between the Business Model and the Operating Model we use the realization (fulfillment) between the Organizational Process and the Value Stream. This way we can show that several “actual” Organizational Processes are fulfilling the value stream.
Super Contributor

Thanks again for all your answers but I still need some guidance. I noticed that all tutorials are referring to the Relationship between Value Streams and Organizational Processes. But when linking Applications to "Something", it is Business Capability and Business Processes.


How do you do as I cannot link Applications to Organizational Processes?

I understand that Organizational Processes are detailed implementation of Business Processes.

However, normally, an Application should in this case be linked to an Organizational Process and not a Business Process.

In the organizational processes we would use the System Used concept to show in more details how an Operation, or and entire Organizational Process, is using Applications. If all the information of where the application is being used is comming from the processes, we would also do a change in ITPM where we would add a query on the Application that collects all the Organizational Processes where the Application is being used. So we would add the Organizational Process in the scope section of the Application. How the query works depends on how your process acrchitecture looks like. If you dont or cant change the ITPM meta-model, you can use a saved query to find all the Business Processes that you need to link to the Application, based on which Organizational Processes are placed inside the Business Process etc.